Reading / Seminar

Bruns, A., 2008. The Future Is User-Led: The Path towards Widespread Produsage. Available at: [Accessed 11/03/2018]

The article talks about the new wave of producers, users of the media that are also creators. It describes the rise of users and the behaviours they have.

Burns writes that in 2005-6 Yahoo! bought Flickr, Google acquired YouTube and Rupert Murdoch purchased MySpace. These were some of the first of big companies making investments in user-generated distribution platforms. He describes this as buying the intellectual property of the masses.

We are the c-generation. We are surrounded by content, all about creativity, engage in the community, under the control of media powers, affected by the rise of celebrity and ultimately we this industry and generation are perpetuated by online cash. This generation has been enabled entirely by Web 2.0 however it is also true that as Generation C’s behaviours have shaped the online world.

We were encouraged to think of the negatives of produsage. The first thing I thought of was mediation, with anyone being able to produce content on a large platform to the masses it is hard without human moderation to censor content. The Logan Paul incident comes to mind. Also, the idea of authenticity, if anyone can put out information, it is also hard to understand what is truth and what is fake. The USA Election fueled by Russian spam accounts is a prime example.


This lecture was very similar to media in transition taking all about the audience side of the user-led media revolution.

We were first introduced to fans and fandoms being people that love watching a type of content, they will very actively break into their text to get more out of it. They will surround themselves with texts and make their own content around it in communities. Practically all of the concepts have been coined by Henry Jenkins.

Web 2.0 has offered us as an audience interactive abilities such as video sharing, commenting, live content and video calling. All content is moving to digital platforms and is being accessed from any device with a browser and online connection.


While the reading suggests media powers are taking over our content it is a much more decentralised. For example, my twitter account can do the exact same as the BBCs. We are all being given similar powers as a user which allows for a much lower hierarchy.

When considering my own usage I will maintain awareness of my behaviours. I need to consider how devoted I am to platforms and types of content, how often do I watch content on repeat? How invested am I in content, have I invested in real-life content like merchandise? Do I picture myself in narratives of content? What content do I make of my own? How does convergence affect my viewing and creating in terms of platforms, devices and content?

Adam Hoskin

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